The radio access networks are slow and applications needs to optimise number of round trips.
The network infrastructure involves various technologies, interfaces and protocols along the communication path. It is conveniently partitioned into domains: Internet, Data Center and Internet Service Provider. The post gives an introduction to high-level IP network architecture and its impact on communication latencies.
Distributed systems involve various technologies and communication principles that bring overhead and latencies. The root cause of latencies varies from physical properties of the network to the quality of software components. The post discussed sources of latencies from the prism of infrastructure, protocol and application.
End-to-end latency is one of user-oriented characteristics used for quality assessment of distributed software architecture. Research indicates that a service fails to meet user needs if a transaction cannot be accomplished within 3 - 4 seconds.